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Version: v1.2

Integrating MACI

MACI can be used in any protocol that requires collusion resistance, for instance it has been proven to be quite efficient when integrated in quadratic funding applications such as and qfi.

Here we will be looking at QFI and how it was used. Please note that this will be expanded as QFI is updated to use the newest version of MACI. Should you decide to integrate MACI in the meantime, feel free to open an issue on the GitHub repo.


First, you need to deploy contracts to start using MACI. This can be easily done via maci-cli. Deployment order is:

  1. Deploy crypto (Hasher, Poseidon)
  2. Deploy VK Registry
  3. Set verification keys
  4. Deploy VoiceCreditProxy
  5. Deploy Gatekeeper
  6. Deploy Verifier
  7. Deploy Topup credit
  8. Deploy MessageProcessorFactory, PollFactory, SubsidyFactory, TallyFactory
  9. Deploy MACI, AccQueueQuinaryMaci
  10. Deploy Poll, AccQueueQuinaryMaci, MessageProcessor, Tally and Subsidy (optional)

Before running the deploy command make sure you have zkey files from trusted setup and env variables ETH_PROVIDER (RPC endpoint) and ETH_SK (wallet private key) are set. For production environment make sure you don't use zkey files from our examples.

Non Quadratic Voting

Make sure that if you intend to run a non quadratic voting Poll, you set the NonQv zKey files on the VkRegistry contract, as well as deploy the Poll with the option --use-quadratic-voting false. Finally, remember to use the correct zk-SNARK artifacts (zKeys, and witnesses) in the genProof/prove commands.

maci-cli deployVkRegistry
maci-cli setVerifyingKeys \
--state-tree-depth 10 \
--int-state-tree-depth 1 \
--msg-tree-depth 2 \
--vote-option-tree-depth 2 \
--msg-batch-depth 1 \
--process-messages-zkey ./zkeys/ProcessMessages_10-2-1-2_test/ProcessMessages_10-2-1-2_test.0.zkey \
--tally-votes-zkey ./zkeys/TallyVotes_10-1-2_test/TallyVotes_10-1-2_test.0.zkey
maci-cli create --stateTreeDepth 10 --use-quadratic-voting true
maci-cli deployPoll \
--pubkey coordinator-public-key \
--duration 30 \
--int-state-tree-depth 1 \
--msg-tree-depth 2 \
--msg-batch-depth 1 \
--vote-option-tree-depth 2 \
--subsidy-enabled false

Signups and votes

Next, you can start accept user signup and votes. This can be done via maci-cli as well:

maci-cli signup \
--pubkey user-public-key
maci-cli publish \
--pubkey user-public-key \
--privkey user-private-key \
--state-index 1 \
--vote-option-index 0 \
--new-vote-weight 9 \
--nonce 1 \
--poll-id 0

Poll finalization

As a coordinator, first you need to merge signups and messages (votes). Signups and messages are stored in a queue so when the poll in over, the coordinator needs to create the tree from the queue. This optimization is needed to reduce gas cost for voters. Then coordinator generates proofs for the message processing, tally and subsidy calculations. This allows to publish the poll results on-chain and then everyone can verify the results when the poll is over.

maci-cli mergeSignups --poll-id 0
maci-cli mergeMessages --poll-id 0
maci-cli genProofs \
--privkey coordinator-private-key \
--poll-id 0 \
--process-zkey ./zkeys/ProcessMessages_10-2-1-2_test/ProcessMessages_10-2-1-2_test.0.zkey \
--tally-zkey ./zkeys/TallyVotes_10-1-2_test/TallyVotes_10-1-2_test.0.zkey \
--tally-file tally.json \
--output proofs/ \
--tally-wasm ./zkeys/TallyVotes_10-1-2_test/TallyVotes_10-1-2_test_js/TallyVotes_10-1-2_test.wasm \
--process-wasm ./zkeys/ProcessMessages_10-2-1-2_test/ProcessMessages_10-2-1-2_test_js/ProcessMessages_10-2-1-2_test.wasm \
maci-cli proveOnChain \
--poll-id 0 \
--proof-dir proofs/ \
--subsidy-enabled false
maci-cli verify \
--poll-id 0 \
--subsidy-enabled false \
--tally-file tally.json # this file is generated in genProofs

MACI Contract

The MACI contract is the core of the protocol. Contracts can inherit from MACI and thus expose the signup and topup functions. As with standalone MACI, one would need to deploy a sign up gatekeeper as well as the voice credit proxy.

As an example, within the quadratic funding infrastructure project, the QFI contract inherits from MACI and allows sign up via the contribute function.

function contribute(
PubKey calldata pubKey,
uint256 amount
) external {


uint256 voiceCredits = amount / voiceCreditFactor;
// The user is marked as registered here upon contribution
grantRoundToContributors[nextGrantRoundId][msg.sender] = ContributorStatus(voiceCredits, true);

// Increase the number of contributors for this round

bytes memory signUpGatekeeperAndInitialVoiceCreditProxyData = abi.encode(



emit ContributionSent(msg.sender, amount);


If you'd like to extend the functionality of how votes are distributed among users, you need to extend InitialVoiceCreditProxy contract. You can see our basic example how it's implemented for constant distribution.

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.10;

import { InitialVoiceCreditProxy } from "./InitialVoiceCreditProxy.sol";

/// @title ConstantInitialVoiceCreditProxy
/// @notice This contract allows to set a constant initial voice credit balance
/// for MACI's voters.
contract ConstantInitialVoiceCreditProxy is InitialVoiceCreditProxy {
/// @notice the balance to be returned by getVoiceCredits
uint256 internal balance;

/// @notice creates a new ConstantInitialVoiceCreditProxy
/// @param _balance the balance to be returned by getVoiceCredits
constructor(uint256 _balance) payable {
balance = _balance;

/// @notice Returns the constant balance for any new MACI's voter
/// @return balance
function getVoiceCredits(address, bytes memory) public view override returns (uint256) {
return balance;


It's also possible to use subsidy feature when coordinator deploys polls, proves poll results on-chain and when poll results are verified. This contract is used to verify that the subsidy calculations are correct. It is also used to update the subsidy commitment if the proof is valid. To enable this feature just provide --subsidy-enabled or -se for maci-cli commands (deployPoll, proveOnChain, verify).

Poll Contract

On the other hand, the Poll contract can be inherited to expose functionality such as top ups and publishing of messages/commands.

For instance, within QFI, the publishMessageBatch function call the publishMessage function of Poll, as shown below:

function publishMessageBatch(
Message[] calldata _messages,
PubKey[] calldata _encPubKeys
) external {
// Check that the two arrays have the same length
_messages.length == _encPubKeys.length,
"GrantRound: _messages and _encPubKeys should be the same length"

uint256 batchSize = _messages.length;
for (uint8 i = 0; i < batchSize; ++i) {
publishMessage(_messages[i], _encPubKeys[i]);

emit Voted(msg.sender);